Cassia Tora L., (Cassia obtusifolia L.), Caesalpiniaceae is a commonly seen weed growing in India and considered a wild crop and has wide uses in commercial and industrial applications. This weed acts as a gelling agent, a tonic, carminative, and stimulant. Cassia contains 1-2% volatile cassia oil which has a very spicy and aromatic flavour. The primary chemical constituents of Cassia include cinnamaldehyde, gum, tannins, mannitol, coumarins, and essential oils (aldehydes, eugenol, and pinene); it also contains sugars, resins, and mucilage, including other constituents. Refined Cassia tora powder made from cassia tora seeds and cassia tora splits are some of the age-old natural ingredients. There are many uses in India like it is used as a natural pesticide in organic farms and the roasted seeds are used as a coffee substitute like tephrosia seeds. Another most commonly used refined cassia gum powder is in the pet industry and is also used with guar gum for mining and other industrial uses.
Regulatory Information of Cassia Gum
- Europe has approved cassia gum and Commission Directive (EEC No. E 499) as is listed in the Annex of the Council Directive (70/524/EEC) has approved it as a stabilizer and gelling agent for the pet of cats and dogs in the category of canned food.
- The Cassia gum has been approved in Japan in the role of food additive by the Ministry of Health and Welfare Announcement No. 160 (10 August 1995).
- The Gum powder has been ratified as a thickening agent in the food of pets in the US only after the nod of experts in the area of toxicology, pharmacology, and food science. The Cassia has been extensively used in the Food industry, Pharmaceutical industry, Ecuadorian culture, and in the field of cosmetics.
Cassia Gum Powder Applications
- The available data on cassia gum and structurally related gums demonstrate a lack of toxic effects in animals. This review is the basis for the consideration of cassia gum as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of its intended use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods.
AbbreviationsFFDCA, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; GRAS, generally recognized as safe; NTP, National Toxicology Program; OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development; PADI, possible average daily intake.There is the reason why cassia gum is recognized as safe like other structurally related gums (GRAS). This element is regarded as toxin-free on animals. To understand what cassia gum is in its simplest form, this is the purified flour from the endosperm of the seeds of Cassia tora Cassia obtusifolia which belong to the Leguminosae family. Seeds of the Cassia occidentalis are considered a contaminant and the use of the gum is that it is used as a thickener, emulsifier, foam stabilizer, moisture retention agent. It also acts as a texturizing agent in frozen dairy products, meat, and poultry products. When combined with hydrocolloids such as Carrageenan or Xanthan gum the synthesis forms a gel substance.
Chemical Structure and Physical Properties of Cassia GumCassia gum is comprised of at least 75% high molecular weight (approximately 200,000-300,000) polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear chain of 1,4-β-D-mannopyranose units with 1,6 linked α-D-galactopyranose units. The ratio of mannose to galactose is about 5:1. The composition of saccharides is: mannose (77.2-78.9%), galactose (15.7-14.7%) and glucose (7.1-6.3%). Like most polysaccharides, the following formula applies: (C6H10O5)n.H2O. Cassia gum is related to carob bean gum, tara gum and guar gum in terms of structure and chemical properties.
Structural formula of Cassia Gum
Gel (synergy) with Carrageenan or Xanthan GumThis cassia gum also when mixed with carrageenan forms firm thermoplastic gels. With the increase in the content of cassia gum, the gel concentrate of carrageenan also increases. Cassia gum and xanthan gum alone cannot form gels but when the two are combined they form elastic and rubbery complete gels. Cassia can easily form gels with xantham gum than other galactomannans, enabling lower total hydrocolloid levels in finished formulations. This is due to the unique branched polysaccharide galactose/mannose structure of refined cassia gum powder.
Cassia Gum Regulatory Status
- United States TSCA
- Canada NDSL
- Korea ECL
- Australia AICS
- Europe EINECS